Articles of Karl Earlson, of http://www.theapricity.com/earlson/index.htm


Pope Innocent III
Lotario dei Conti di Segni
(1160-1216)

Fresco in the Church of Sacro Speco, Subiaco (13th Century)
[Maxwell-Stuart (1997) 83]
Mosaic from the old Basilica of St. Peter, Rome (13th Century)
[Bovini (1966) 19]

Pope Innocent III (1198-1216), is generally considered to be “the greatest pope of the Middle Ages, who came near to establishing pontifical theocracy.” [Dunan (1968) 323.] Innocent was a man of strongly Nordish racial descent. He was born in the Castello di Gavignano in Campagna di Roma, and bore the distinctly Germanic name Lotario (= Lothar). Innocent’s father was the Italian aristocrat Trasimund, Count of Segni, and his mother, Claricia Scotti, came from the Roman nobility. Both families were of Germanic ancestry. [Woltmann (1905) 37.] Innocent’s family was extremely distinguished, as one author has noted: “Innocent III came from a family, the Conti, which, over a period of some 500 years, gave the Church 13 popes, 3 antipopes, 40 cardinals and a queen.” [Maxwell-Stuart (1997) 101.]

In the Conti Chapel at Poli in Latium, there resides the remains of a thirteenth-century mosaic, that formerly adorned the apse of the old Basilica of St. Peter in Rome. [Bovini (1966) 23-4.] The mosaic was restored by Innocent during his pontificate, and one fragment that has survived, depicts him with blond hair and a fair complexion. Unfortunately, the racial import of this artwork is marred somewhat by its relatively crude nature.

However, a more valuable contemporary depiction of Innocent can be found in the Church of Sacro Speco at Subiaco. A thirteenth-century fresco of Innocent can be found there, which portrays him in great detail. [Maxwell-Stuart (1997) 101.] The fresco shows Innocent as an imposing figure, with a long face, narrow nose, and a lantern jaw. His complexion is pale, but ruddy in the cheeks; his hair is dark-blond, though shot through with light-blond highlights; his eyes are dark-blue in colour. It may be deduced from all of the foregoing evidence, that Innocent III was predominantly Nordish.

Bibliography

Bovini, G. (1966) The Basilica of St. Peter, Rome (Bologna: Resto del Carlino).

Dunan, M. (1968) Larousse Encyclopedia of Ancient and Medieval History (Feltham: Paul Hamlyn).

Maxwell-Stuart, P. G. (1997) Chronicle of the Popes (London: Thames & Hudson).

Woltmann, L. (1905) Die Germanen und die Renaissance in Italien (Leipzig: Thüringische Verlagsanstalt).

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Nordic Hellas

Mosaic from Pella (Macedonia) 4th Century BC

 

During the course of my investigations into Nordic racial history, I have gathered together some rather interesting material on the presence of the Nordic race in the Classical World. Of particular value, are the researches of J. L. Angel, who performed an extensive survey of all ancient Greek crania. Angel analysed these skulls from a typological perspective, and because of the position he took on the reality of race, he was subsequently much criticised by his contemporaries.

We may note that Angel (1944), calculated that during the Classical period of Greek history (650—150 BC), 27% of the Greek population had been predominantly Nordic in type. He observed that prior to the Classical period, the Nordic element had been larger, and that after it, the element in question had declined. [Angel (1943; 1944; 1945; 1946a, b, c.] Angel (1971), also noted that the immigrant Indo-Europeans, were of Nordic subrace.

Peterson (1974), studied portrait busts of famous ancient Greek personages, and concluded that the aristocracies of Hellas were a product of closely interbreeding, Eupatrid clans. These clans were mostly Nordic in type, being largely descended from the Indo-European invaders. The demos, or common people however, as well as most slaves, were of Mediterranean, Pelasgian descent.

The study of Greek literature which Sieglin (1935) performed, has demonstrated that many individuals in the elites of ancient Greece, had blond or red hair. For instance, Alcibiades, Alexander the Great, Critias, Demetrius of Phalerum, King Lysimachus, Ptolemy II Philadelphus and King Pyrrhus, were all fair-haired individuals. Dionysius I, the ruler of Syracuse, had blond hair and freckles, whilst the Athenian playwright Euripides, also had a fair and freckled complexion. [Günther (1956).] Some critics have attempted to claim that the Greek word “ksanthos” (xanthos), means “brown-haired”, rather than “blond-haired”. However, a recent article by Moonwomon (1994), on colour-meaning in ancient Greek, reveals that the word did in fact mean blond.

There are also numerous interesting examples from Greek literature which can be cited. For instance, in Homer’s Iliad, and Odyssey, whilst the aristocrats such as Achilles and Menelaus have blond hair, the slaves Eurybates and Thersites are brunet. Indeed, the Greek orator Dio of Prusa noted that the Greek ideal of beauty was a Nordic one. The Greeks, he said, admired the blond Achilles, but thought that the barbarian Trojan Hector, was black-haired. [Günther (1956).] In his Argonautica, the Greek poet Apollonius Rhodius, describes the hero Jason, and all fifty of the Argonauts, as blond-haired. [Sieglin (1935).] When the heroine Electra, in Euripides’ play of that name, finds a lock of her brother Orestes’ hair, on the grave of their father Agamemnon, she can tell that it is his hair, because of its distinctive blond colour. It would appear that the nobility of ancient Greece was distinguished from the dark masses, by its many blond members. [Ridgeway (1909).] The poet Bacchylides said that the women of Sparta were blonde, and Dicaearchus said much the same thing about the women of Thebes. [Günther (1956).] For the Greeks, the most beautiful woman who ever lived, Helen, was a blonde, as were those mythical men such as Adonis, who were famed for their handsomeness. [Sieglin (1935).]

For more literary descriptions of pigmentation in ancient Greek poetry and prose, as well as craniological evidence, I can recommend the following works: De Lapouge (1899), Jax (1933), Myres (1930), Reche (1936) and Ridgeway (1901).

Günther’s works on the subject of Greek racial history (1927; 1928; 1929a, b; 1956; 1961), are particularly valuable. Günther performed a detailed analysis of Greek history, from a biological perspective. Utilising craniological, literary, and pictorial evidence, he reconstructed the racial structure of ancient Greece. He concluded that the Nordic subrace formed something of an ideal for the Greeks, and that the Nordic element was more influential than any other. At the summit of its achievements, Greece possessed a large Nordic element, but as this element declined, so did Greek culture and civilisation.

Finally, we may observe that in the fourth-century AD, the Jewish physician and sophist Adamantios, described the “true Greek” thus:

“Wherever the Hellenic and Ionic race has been kept pure, we see proper tall men of fairly broad and straight build, neatly made, of fairly light skin and blond; the flesh is rather firm, the limbs straight, the extremities well made. The head is of middling size, and moves very easily; the neck is strong, the hair somewhat fair, and soft, and a little curly; the face is rectangular, the lips narrow, the nose straight, and the eyes bright, piercing, and full of light; for of all nations the Greek has the fairest eyes.” [Günther (1927) 157.]

I do not personally believe that the Nordic racial element in ancient Greece was ever predominant, but I do think that it was concentrated in the elites, and that it therefore probably had a disproportionately large influence. It is easiest to study and trace the impact of this particular element, because of its distinctive pigmentation.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books

Angel, J. L. (1971) Lerna: A Preclassical Site in the Argolid, Volume II — The People (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press).

De Lapouge, G. V. (1899) L’Aryen: Son Rôle Social (Paris: Albert Fontemoing).

Günther, H. F. K. [G. C. Wheeler, trans.] (1927) The Racial Elements of European History (London: Methuen).

Günther, H. F. K. (1928) Platon als Hüter des Lebens: Platons Zucht- und Erziehungsgedanken und deren Bedeutung für die Gegenwart (Munich: J. F. Lehmanns Verlag).

Günther, H. F. K. (1929a) Rassengeschichte des hellenischen und des römischen Volkes: Mit einem Anhang — Hellenische und römische Köpfe nordischer Rasse (Munich: J. F. Lehmanns Verlag).

Günther, H. F. K. (1929b) Rassenkunde Europas: Mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Rassengeschichte der Hauptvölker indogermanischer Sprache (Munich: J. F. Lehmanns Verlag).

Günther, H. F. K. (1956) Lebensgeschichte des hellenischen Volkes (Pähl: Verlag Hohe Warte).

Jax, K. (1933) Die weibliche Schönheit in der griechischen Dichtung (Innsbruck: Universitäts-Verlag Wagner).

Myres, J. L. (1930) Who Were the Greeks? (Berkeley: University of California Press).

Reche, O. (1936) Rasse und Heimat der Indogermanen (Munich: J. F. Lehmanns Verlag).

Ridgeway, W. (1901) The Early Age of Greece, Volume I (London: Cambridge University Press).

Sieglin, W. (1935) Die blonden Haare der indogermanischen Völker des Altertums (Munich: J. F. Lehmanns Verlag).

Articles

Angel, J. L. (1943) “Ancient Cephallenians: The Population of a Mediterranean Island.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, I, 229—260.

Angel, J. L. (1944) “A Racial Analysis of the Ancient Greeks: An Essay on the Use of Morphological Types.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, II, 329—376.

Angel, J. L. (1945) “Skeletal Material From Attica.” Hesperia, XIV, 279—363.

Angel, J. L. (1946a) “Race, Type, and Ethnic Group in Ancient Greece.” Human Biology, XVIII, 1—32.

Angel, J. L. (1946b) “Skeletal Change in Ancient Greece.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, IV, 69—97.

Angel, J. L. (1946c) “Social Biology of Greek Culture Growth.” American Anthropologist, XLVIII, 493—533.

Günther, H. F. K. (1961) “Like a Greek God…. Translated by Vivian Bird from Professor Hans F. K. Guenther’s Rassenkunde des Hellenischen Volkes.” Northern World, VI (1), 5—16.

Moonwomon, B. (1994) “Color Categorization in Early Greek.” Journal of Indo-European Studies, XXII, 37—65.

Peterson, R. (1974) “The Greek Face.” Journal of Indo-European Studies, II, 385—406.

Ridgeway, W. (1909) “The Relation of Anthropology to Classical Studies.” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, XXXIX, 10—25.

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Pigmentation of the Early Roman Emperors

In the table given below, I have compiled all of the known data concerning the pigmentation of the early Roman Emperors. This list begins with Augustus (27 BC-AD 14), the first Emperor, and ends with Commodus (AD 180-192), the last ruler of the Antonine dynasty. It proved convenient to end the list at this particular point, because information about Imperial hair and eye colour becomes much more scanty, after the reign of Commodus. Also, most of the Emperors who succeeded Commodus, were not of purely Roman ancestry. Therefore, their colouring would not furnish us with any worthwhile discoveries, in relation to the appearance of the Roman-Patrician ruling class. Here then, are the results of my investigations:

Emperor Reign Hair Colour Source Eye Colour Source
Augustus 27 BC-AD 14 “blond-haired” (subflavum) Suetonius, 79 “grey-eyed” (glauci) Pliny, XI, 143
Tiberius AD 14-37 “grey/blue-eyed” (caesii) Pliny, XI, 142
Caligula AD 37-41 “golden-bearded” (aurea barba) Suetonius, 52; cf. Sieglin (1935) 105
Claudius AD 41-54 “grey/white-haired” (canitieque) Suetonius, 30 “grey-eyed” (γλαυκόφθαλμος) Malalas, X, 246
Nero AD 54-68 “blond-haired” (subflavo) Suetonius, 51 “grey/blue-eyed” (caesis) Suetonius, 51
Galba AD 68-69 “grey/white-haired” (μιξοπόλιος) Malalas, X, 258 “blue-eyed” (caeruleis) Suetonius, 21
Otho AD 69
Vitellius AD 69 “redheaded” (πυρράκης) Malalas, X, 259; cf. Sieglin (1935) 110 “grey-eyed” (γλαυκός) Malalas, X, 259
Vespasian AD 69-79 “grey/white-haired” (πολιός) Malalas, X, 259 “wine-coloured eyes” (οινοπαης τους οφθαλμούς) Malalas, X, 259
Titus AD 79-81 “blond-haired” Sieglin (1935) 109
Domitian AD 81-96 “blond-haired” (ξανθός) Malalas, X, 262 “grey-eyed” (γλαυκός) Malalas, X, 262
Nerva AD 96-98 “grey-haired” Day (2001) 106
Trajan AD 98-117 “golden-haired” (caesaries) Sieglin (1935) 109
Hadrian AD 117-138 “dark-haired” (κυανοχαιτα) Sieglin (1935) 112 “grey-eyed” (γλαυκόφθαλμος) Malalas, XI, 277
Antoninus Pius AD 138-161 “grey/white-haired” (πολιός) Malalas, XI, 280 “wine-coloured eyes” (οινοπαης τους οφθαλμούς) Malalas, XI, 280
Marcus Aurelius AD 161-180
Lucius Verus AD 161-169 “blond-haired” (flaventium) Sieglin (1935) 110
Commodus AD 180-192 “blond-haired” (ουλόξανθος) Malalas, XII, 283; cf. Sieglin (1935) 106 “grey-eyed” (υπόγλαυκος) Malalas, XII, 283

As can clearly be seen from this, there was a predominance of fair characteristics, amongst the Roman ruling class.

Of the 18 Emperors from Augustus to Commodus: 9 had blond or red hair; 5 had grey or white hair; 3 had no recorded hair colour, and just 1 (Hadrian), was referred to as dark-haired.

Of the 18 Emperors from Augustus to Commodus: 9 had blue or grey eyes; 2 had “wine-coloured eyes” (whatever that may mean), and 7 had no recorded eye colour.

Although several of the Emperors were white/grey-haired old men, we still possess information which depicts a few of them as light-eyed. If records had been made during their youth, it is likely that they would have been called fair-haired as well. Of the 9 Emperors who had fair hair, 5 are listed as also having light eyes, whilst the remaining 4 have no noted eye colour. Remarkably, only Hadrian is called dark-haired, but even then, he was still described as being light-eyed. Strangely enough, for whatever reason, we possess absolutely no description at all of the “philosopher Emperor” Marcus Aurelius.

The precise meaning of “wine-coloured eyes” remains troublesome, and no completely satisfactory explanation of this term has ever been offered. Some scholars have suggested that it may mean “warm brown eyes,” but this is mere supposition on their part. [Day (2001) 105.] For the time being, we will treat this term neutrally. Therefore, with this notable exception, there seem to be no references to dark eyes.

It is surprising how detailed and complete our records are concerning these facts, but there are some important lacunae in our knowledge, and we may offer some speculations as to why they occur. For instance, Tiberius’ hair colour does not appear to have been recorded. This may be due to the fact that he was largely bald by the time he became Emperor. [Scarre (1995) 28.] Similarly, Otho was fond of depilating himself, and often wore a wig, as Suetonius affirms. [Scarre (1995) 61.] Also, his reign was relatively brief, and thus there may not have been sufficient time for a record of his eye colour to be made.

It is interesting that we possess more data about hair colour, than eye colour. As Day has noted, accurate observations of eye colour are rather rare, because irises have smaller surface areas than head-hair and exposed skin, often making them less noticeable. [Day (2001) 54.]

The fact that the records are comparatively complete, totally undermines the notion that the Emperors were brunet, like the majority of Romans during the Imperial Age, or that their pigmentation went unrecorded, because it could simply be assumed that they were dark-complexioned, and thus akin to the masses.

All of this augments the findings of Wilhelm Sieglin, who compiled a list of 27 blond-haired Roman gods and goddesses, 10 blond Roman heroes and heroines, and 63 blond Roman historical figures, many of whom were Patricians. [Sieglin (1935) 136.] It also confirms the theories of Hans F. K. Günther, who argued that the frequent use by the Patricians, of names such as Rufi, Flavi or Fulvi (indicating fair hair), and Caesulla or Ravilia (indicating light eyes), demonstrated their strongly Nordic racial affinities. [Günther (1957) 151-152.]

This work is merely a fraction of the information that exists on this subject. Many of the Roman Emperors were also tall, fair-complexioned, etc., but this study at least offers some highly revealing facts. In conclusion, this data demonstrates a marked tendency towards light features among the Roman Patricians.

Abbreviations

Malalas = John Malalas, Chronographia.

Pliny = Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia.

Suetonius = Suetonius, De Vita Caesarum: Divus Iulius, Divus Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Divus Claudius, Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Divus Vespasianus, Titus, Domitianus.

Bibliography

Day, J. V. (2001) Indo-European Origins (Washington, DC: Institute for the Study of Man).

Günther, H. F. K. (1957) Lebensgeschichte des römischen Volkes (Pähl: Verlag Hohe Warte).

Jeffreys, E., M. Jeffreys & R. Scott (1986) The Chronicle of John Malalas (Melbourne: Australian Association for Byzantine Studies).

Scarre, C. (1995) Chronicle of the Roman Emperors (London: Thames and Hudson).

Sieglin, W. (1935) Die blonden Haare der indogermanischen Völker des Altertums (Munich: J. F. Lehmanns Verlag).

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 Nordic Italy

German Nordic (left) Emperor Augustus (right)

 

It is clear that throughout its history, Italy has been subject to several invasions by predominantly Nordic peoples. The first of these invasions laid the foundations for ancient Rome. The early Patrician class was constituted from Nordic racial elements, as Coon affirms:

“Their facial type is not native to the Mediterranean basin, but is more at home in the north….

…the movements from the north introduced Nordics of two varieties; the classic Hallstatt type, and the Keltic Iron Age type which was later to form the basic racial element among the Roman patricians.” [Coon (1939) 194; 554.]

The French author Rochat, examined portraits of the ancient Romans, and concluded that the Roman type was essentially Nordic. [Günther (1957).] The Swiss physical anthropologist His (1866), after studying both sculptures and skulls, determined that the true Romans had been Nordic.

There also exists a considerable body of evidence in relation to pigmentation. The German classicist Sieglin (1935), studied ancient Roman records, and demonstrated that the family names of most Patrician clans, denoted Nordic racial features, when they were translated from their original Latin. For instance, there were numerous Rufii, Rubrii and Rutilii, names which refer to red hair. There were also Flavi, Flaviani and Fulvi, which reveals blond hair. Sieglin studied all the references that were made to noted Romans, throughout the history of Roman literature. He compiled the following list of individuals, whose names are indicative of their possessing fair hair; Sieglin found: 7 Flavi, 20 Flaviani, 10 Fulvi, 121 Fulvii, 27 Rubrii, 26 Rufi, 24 Rufii, 36 Rufini, 45 Rutilii and 13 Ahenobarbi. He also observed that the names Flavius, Rufi and Rufini, were frequently employed by several Patrician families. [Sieglin (1935) 53.]

We also possess descriptions of famous individuals. In his Life of Cato the Elder, Plutarch states that the Censor had red hair and blue eyes; in the same author’s Life of Sulla, he declares that the Dictator possessed golden-blond hair and blue eyes. Suetonius, in his Lives of the Twelve Caesars, said that both Augustus and Nero had blond hair and blue eyes, that Galba had blue eyes, whilst Domitian not only had a ruddy complexion, but also composed a poem about an elderly, red-haired Roman that he knew. Suetonius also notes that Nero’s gens were referred to as the Ahenobarbi, (Copper Beards), because his clan continually produced men who had red beards. Finally, we can observe that the name “Caesar”, derives from the Latin word caesius, which means “blue-eyed”. [Günther (1957) 147—162.]

It is interesting to note that the Romans thought that Aeneas, Romulus and Remus, as well as Roma, the goddess who symbolised the Eternal City itself, were all golden-haired individuals. It would seem that the Romans could only have thought that the mythical founders of their people were blond, if they were themselves an originally blond-haired nation. [Ogle (1929).] In his researches Günther (1927; 1929a, b; 1957), has examined in great detail, the racial history of the Romans, and has successfully demonstrated that the origins of Rome’s greatness lay in its Nordic racial elements.

This essentially Nordic trend continued into the Early Modern Period. The Germanic invasions refreshed Italy’s Nordic stock, and in time gave birth to the Renaissance. It is significant that the Renaissance flowered in the north of Italy, where the Nordic element was strongest, and not in the predominantly Mediterranean south. Throughout the Renaissance period, the ideal of beauty was Nordic. Dante’s Beatrice, and Petrarch’s Laura, were both blondes. Botticelli’s and Titian’s paintings depicted the blonde woman as being the most beautiful.

However, the blond element was not solely confined to images of the ideal. It is equally clear that the many geniuses the Renaissance produced, throughout several different fields of expertise, were also predominantly Nordic. Ripley (1899), thought that because Northern Italy is predominantly Alpine today, most of the great Renaissance figures must also have been Alpine. However, the facts do not confirm his speculations. Sergi and Frassetto (1925), examined the crania of several great Italians, including Dante, Petrarch, Raphael, Foscolo and Volta, and observed that all were either dolichocephalic, or mesocephalic. Of course, the true Alpine is brachycephalic. [Welcker (1884).]

In addition to this, we should not neglect the researches of Woltmann (1905). Woltmann studied portrait paintings, busts and written descriptions, to ascertain the physical features of the great men of the Italian Renaissance. He revealed that many of the individuals in question, such as Leonardo da Vinci, Tasso, Galileo, etc., were of Germanic descent, and that they possessed Nordic racial characteristics. The results of his investigations, were as follows: of the 125 men whose eye colour could be discerned, 102 had blue, blue-grey or blue-green eyes; 18 had brown or brown-grey eyes; and 5 had eyes of mixed pigmentation. Of the 108 men whose hair colour could be accurately determined, 68 had blond or red hair; 26 had brown hair; and 14 had black hair. [Woltmann (1905) 143—144.] Woltmann also discovered that most of the noble families who ruled over much of Northern Italy, produced blond individuals throughout their generations. Such families as the d’Este of Ferrara, the Bentivoglia of Bologna and the Sforza of Milan, were all largely blond-haired and blue-eyed. [Woltmann (1905) 42—49.]

We should also note the words of Bartolomeo Las Casas; in his Historia de las Indias, he depicted Christopher Columbus in the following manner:

“He was tall, had a long, striking countenance, aquiline nose, blue eyes, and a light skin, inclined to be ruddy; his beard and hair in youth were fair, but care soon whitened them.” [Günther (1927) 215.]

Even in modern Italy, during the period of the Risorgimento, many of the great politicians and artists were Nordic: Garibaldi had red hair, Cavour was blond, Canova had blue eyes, etc. [Woltmann (1905) 133—141.] If you are interested in this subject, and wish to know more about it, then I suggest that you also read the following works: Cogni (1937), De Lapouge (1899), Los (1968), Plumb (1961) and Reche (1936).

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books

Cogni, G. (1937) I valori della stirpe italiana (Milan: Fratelli Bocca).

Coon, C. S. (1939) The Races of Europe (New York: Macmillan).

De Lapouge, G. V. (1899) L’Aryen: Son Rôle Social (Paris: Albert Fontemoing).

Günther, H. F. K. [G. C. Wheeler, trans.] (1927) The Racial Elements of European History (London: Methuen).

Günther, H. F. K. (1929a) Rassengeschichte des hellenischen und des römischen Volkes: Mit einem Anhang — Hellenische und römische Köpfe nordischer Rasse (Munich: J. F. Lehmanns Verlag).

Günther, H. F. K. (1929b) Rassenkunde Europas: Mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Rassengeschichte der Hauptvölker indogermanischer Sprache (Munich: J. F. Lehmanns Verlag).

Günther, H. F. K. (1957) Lebensgeschichte des römischen Volkes (Pähl: Verlag Hohe Warte).

Plumb, J. H. (1961) The Horizon Book of the Renaissance (London: Collins).

Reche, O. (1936) Rasse und Heimat der Indogermanen (Munich: J. F. Lehmanns Verlag).

Ripley, W. Z. (1899) The Races of Europe: A Sociological Study (New York: D. Appleton).

Sieglin, W. (1935) Die blonden Haare der indogermanischen Völker des Altertums (Munich: J. F. Lehmanns Verlag).

Woltmann, L. (1905) Die Germanen und die Renaissance in Italien (Leipzig: Thüringische Verlagsanstalt).

Articles

His, W. (1866) “Beschreibung einiger Schädel altschweizerischer Bevölkerung nebst Bemerkungen über die Aufstellung von Schädeltypen.” Archiv für Anthropologie, I, 61—74.

Los, F. J. (1968) “The Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire: The Biological Background.” Mankind Quarterly, IX, 3—19.

Ogle, M. B. (1929) “The Blonde Aeneas: Vergil, Aeneid 1.592.” Classical Weekly, XXIII, 28—30.

Sergi, G. & F. Frassetto (1925) “Esame antropologico delle ossa di Dante nel VI centenario della sua morte.” Rivista di Antropologia, XXVI, 3—17.

Welcker, H. (1884) “Der Schädel Rafael’s und die Rafaelporträts.” Archiv für Anthropologie, XV, 417—440.

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Nacido en Sevilla, en el segundo piso de la casa nº 8 (después 18) de calle Redes de Sevilla, el 21 de Septiembre de 1957. Primogénito de D. Ricardo, tenor dramático de ópera (que estuvo a punto de hacer la carrera en Milán), y pintor artístico; y de Dñª. Josefina, modista y sastre ( para hombre y mujer), mas principalmente pintora artística de entusiata vocación. Desafortunadamente dedicóse tan abnegadamente a su familia y hogar, que poco pudo pintar, pero el Arte, el retrato, dibujo y pintura fueron su pasión hasta la muerte, que la sorprendió delante de un óleo de San Antonio de Escuela barroca sevillana, y al lado de una copia, hecha por mi padre, de la Piedad de Crespi, en tiempo litúrgico de San José. Seminarista en Roma, de la Archidiócesis de Sevilla desde 1977-1982, por credenciales canónicas de Su Eminencia Revmª. Mons. Dr. Don José María Bueno y Monreal. Alumno de la Pontificia Universidad de Santo Tomás de Aquino en Roma, 1977-1982, 1984, por encomienda del mismo Cardenal Arzobispo de Sevilla. Bachiller en Sagrada Teología por dicha Universidad (Magna cum Laude), donde hizo todos los cursos de Licenciatura y Doctorado en Filosofía (S.cum Laude), y parte del ciclo de licenciatura en Derecho Canónico (incluido Derecho Penal Eclesiástico). Ordenado de Menores por el Obispo de Siena, con dimisorias del Obispo Diocesano Conquense, Su Exciª.Rvmª. Mons. Dr. en Sagrada Teología, D. José Guerra y Campos. Incardinado en la Diócesis de Cuenca (España) en cuanto ordenado "in sacris", Diácono, por Su Exciª.Rvmª. Mons. Dr. en Sagrada Teología, D. José Guerra y Campos, el 20 de Marzo de 1982. Delegado de S.E.R. Mons. Pavol Hnilica,S.J., en España. Ordenado Presbítero, por dimisorias del mismo sapientísimo, piadoso e insigne católico Doctor y Obispo Diocesano conquense, el 8 de Enero de 1984 en la Catedral de Jerez de la Frontera (Cádiz), por Su Exciª. Rvmª. Mons. D. Rafael Bellido y Caro. Capellán Castrense del Ejército del Aire, asimilado a Teniente, y nº 1 de su promoción, en 1985. Fue alumno militarizado en todo, en la Academia General del Aire de San Javier (Murcia), destinado al Ala nº 35 de Getafe, y después a la 37 de Villanubla (Valladolid); luego de causar baja, como también el nº 2 de la promoción, a causa de encubiertas intrigas políticas pesoistas [ocupó pués, así, la primera plaza el nº 3, primo del entonces presidente de la Junta de Andalucía, un Rodríguez de la Borbolla] en connivencia con el pesoista Vicario Gral. Castrense, Mons. Estepa. Fue luego adscrito al Mando Aéreo de Combate de Torrejón de Ardoz. Párroco personal de la Misión Católica Española en Suiza, de Frauenfeld, Pfin, Weinfelden, Schafhausen, ... , y substituto permanente en Stein am Rhein (Alemania) . Provisor Parroquial de Flims y Trin (cantón Grisones), en 1989-90; Provisor Parroquial (substituto temporal del titular) en Dachau Mittendorf y Günding (Baviera), etc.. Diplomado en alemán por el Goethe Institut de Madrid y el de Bonn (mientras se hospedaba en la Volkshochschule Kreuzberg de esa ciudad renana) . Escolástico e investigador privado en Humanidades, defensor del Magisterio Solemne Tradicional de la Iglesia Católica y fundamentalmente tomista, escribe con libertad de pensamiento e indagación, aficionado a la dialéctica, mayéutica de la Ciencia. Su lema literario es el de San Agustín: "In fide unitas, in dubiis libertas et in omnibus Charitas". Ora en Ontología, ora en Filosofía del Derecho y en Derecho Político admira principalmente a los siguientes Grandes: Alejandro Magno (más que un libro: un modelo para Tratados) discípulo de "El Filósofo", Aristóteles, Platón, San Isidoro de Sevilla, Santo Tomás de Aquino, los RRPP Santiago Ramírez, Cornelio Fabro, Juán de Santo Tomás, Domingo Báñez, el Cardenal Cayetano, el Ferrariense, Domingo de Soto, Goudin, los Cardenales Zigliara y González, Norberto del Prado; Friedrich Nietsche, Martin Heidegger ; Fray Magín Ferrer, Ramón Nocedal y Romea, Juán Vázquez de Mella, Enrique Gil Robles, Donoso Cortés, Los Condes De Maistre y De Gobineau, el R.P. Taparelli D'Azeglio; S.E. el General León Degrelle, Coronel de las SS Wallonien, Fundador del Movimiento católico "Rex", el Almirante y Excmº. Sr. Don Luis Carrero Blanco (notable pensador antimasónico, "mártir" de la conspiración de clérigos modernistas, y afines, suvbersivos, y de la judeleninista ETA), S.E. el Sr. Secretario Político de S.M. Don Sixto (Don Rafael Grambra Ciudad), los Catedráticos Don Elías de Tejada y Spínola y Don Miguel Ayuso, entre otros grandes pensadores del "Clasicismo Natural" y "Tradicionalismo Católico"; Paracelso, el Barón de Evola, etc. . En Derecho Canónico admira especialmente a Manuel González Téllez y Fray Juán Escobar del Corro; Por supuesto que no se trata de ser pedisecuo de todos y cada uno de ellos, no unánimes en un solo pensamiento ("...in dubiis libertas"). Se distancia intelectual, voluntaria, sentimental y anímicamente de todo aquel demagogo, se presente hipócriamente como "antipopulista" siendo "polulista", o lo haga como antifascista, "centrista", moderado, equilibrado, progresista, moderno, creador y garante de prosperidad, o como lo que quiera, el cuál, sometiéndose a la mentira sectaria, propagandística y tiránica, inspirada en cualquiera de las "Revoluciones" de espíritu judío (: la puritana cronwelliana (1648,) la judeomasónica washingtoniana (1775), la judeomasónica perpetrada en y contra Francia en 1789, y las enjudiadas leninista y anarquista), ataque sectariamente o vilipendie a Tradicionalistas, franquistas, Falangistas, Fascistas, Nacionalsocialistas, Rexistas, etc., o se posicione nuclearmente, a menudo con la mayor vileza inmisericorde, y a veces sacrílega, contra mis Camaradas clasicistas ora supervivientes a la Gran Guerra Mundial (1914-1945), ora Caídos en combate o a resultas; se considera y siente parte de la camaradería histórica y básica común con los tradicionalismos europeistas vanguardistas de inspiración cristiana (al menos parcial), y con sus sujetos, aliados de armas contra la Revolución (jacobina, socialista, comunista, anarquista).
Esta entrada fue publicada en ANTIRRACISMO, RACISMO Y CASTISMO, HISTORIA, MITO DE LA RAZA. Guarda el enlace permanente.

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